Mitochondrial DNA facts as we know them. | INFJ Forum

Mitochondrial DNA facts as we know them.

just me

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Please share complicit facts with references. Please, no videos or active links: show them not from your own words or thoughts, as we will discuss later. This is a learning tool why some beings can be different! It is time we put it all together in order. Science does not encompass everything without theories.


Clearly, for every x there exists some y > x. However, there does not exist an integer x where x < y for all integers y (since there is no least integer). This is why the first implication doesn't hold. In the second, you have "for all" for both x and y. You are correct that this covers every choice of x and y and the order does not matter. Share mathstackexchange.com

Food for thought. Shall some of us attempt to learn together?

Where does one start for human comprehension? It was made simple, though simplicity sometimes brings denial. We shall, rather, attempt to view this in the parameters of time. Because of denial, it can be difficult and will be. Why do we not seek understanding? May we start in the midst of time?
Shall we seek a temporal understanding of eternity? Beyond what has been stated for thousands of years, do we seek to dismantle?

My goal is to walk through, slowly, through our human experience.
Not all creatures are manifested by X/Y or X/X.

X Y Chromosomes
X Chromosome, Y Chromosome

Reviewed by Psychology Today Staff

Each human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes that carry DNA within their nucleus. The X and Y chromosomes, commonly referred to as the sex chromosomes, are one such pair. They determine the biological sex, reproductive organs, and sexual characteristics that develop in a person. Female (XX) mammals inherit one X chromosome from each parent, but males (XY) receive an X from their mother and a Y sex chromosome from their father.

Is a Person's Sex a Social Construct?
Scientists still don’t entirely agree about what exactly makes a person female or male, or even whether sex is a kind of human invention. Psychology today, wikipedia
 
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Each human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes that carry DNA within their nucleus. The X and Y chromosomes, commonly referred to as the sex chromosomes, are one such pair. They determine the biological sex, reproductive organs, and sexual characteristics that develop in a person. Female (XX) mammals inherit one X chromosome from each parent, but males (XY) receive an X from their mother and a Y sex chromosome from their father.

Yep, sounds accurate for the normative human reproductive and developmental process.

Those chromosomes produce males, females, intersex, mosaics, chimeras, and those with chromosomal aberrations of deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation.

Sex (Wikipedia)

Cheers,
Ian
 
Was there anything specific in your recognized link you wish to share, other than your own words?

Please share complicit facts with references. Please, no videos or active links: show them not from your own words or thoughts, as we will discuss later. This is a learning tool why some beings can be different! It is time we put it all together in order. Science does not encompass everything without theories.
 
Can anyone copy and paste what is next?
There are rules to this. It is not subject to anything but a step for understanding.
 
mitochondrion, membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells (cells with clearly defined nuclei), the primary function of which is to generate large quantities of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria are typically round to oval in shape and range in size from 0.5 to 10 μm. In addition to producing energy, mitochondria store calcium for cell signaling activities, generate heat, and mediate cell growth and death. Britannica

eukaryote, any cell or organism that possesses a clearly defined nucleus. The eukaryotic cell has a nuclear membrane that surrounds the nucleus, in which the well-defined chromosomes (bodies containing the hereditary material) are located. Eukaryotic cells also contain organelles, including mitochondria (cellular energy exchangers), a Golgi apparatus (secretory device), an endoplasmic reticulum (a canal-like system of membranes within the cell), and lysosomes (digestive apparatus within many cell types). There are several exceptions to this, however; for example, the absence of mitochondria and a nucleus in red blood cells and the lack of mitochondria in the oxymonad Monocercomonoides species. Britannica

chromosome, the microscopic threadlike part of the cell that carries hereditary information in the form of genes. A defining feature of any chromosome is its compactness. For instance, the 46 chromosomes found in human cells have a combined length of 200 nm (1 nm = 10− 9 metre); if the chromosomes were to be unraveled, the genetic material they contain would measure roughly 2 metres (about 6.5 feet) in length. Britannica

cell
a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently Webster's Dictionary
 
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The molecules of cells

Understand how cell membranes regulate food consumption and waste and how cell walls provide protection
See all videos for this article
Cells contain a special collection of molecules that are enclosed by a membrane. These molecules give cells the ability to grow and reproduce. The overall process of cellular reproduction occurs in two steps: cell growth and cell division. During cell growth, the cell ingests certain molecules from its surroundings by selectively carrying them through its cell membrane. Once inside the cell, these molecules are subjected to the action of highly specialized, large, elaborately folded molecules called enzymes. Enzymes act as catalysts by binding to ingested molecules and regulating the rate at which they are chemically altered. These chemical alterations make the molecules more useful to the cell. Unlike the ingested molecules, catalysts are not chemically altered themselves during the reaction, allowing one catalyst to regulate a specific chemical reaction in many molecules. Britannica
 
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chemical reaction, a process in which one or more substances, the reactants, are converted to one or more different substances, the products. Substances are either chemical elements or compounds. A chemical reaction rearranges the constituent atoms of the reactants to create different substances as products. Britannica

Chemical reactions must be distinguished from physical changes. Physical changes include changes of state, such as ice melting to water and water evaporating to vapour. If a physical change occurs, the physical properties of a substance will change, but its chemical identity will remain the same. No matter what its physical state, water (H2O) is the same compound, with each molecule composed of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. However, if water, as ice, liquid, or vapour, encounters sodium metal (Na), the atoms will be redistributed to give the new substances molecular hydrogen (H2) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). By this, we know that a chemical change or reaction has occurred. Britannica


You would use "leads" when the subject is singular and "lead" when the subject is plural. Like in these sentences:

"This road leads to Rome."

"These roads lead to Rome."

So in your case, if there was one scattering potential you might say something like this:

"The scattering potential leads to ..."
english.stackexchange.com

Scattering - Wikipedia
Scattering is a term used in physics to describe a wide range of physical processes where moving particles or radiation of some form, such as light or sound, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by localized non-uniformities (including particles and radiation) in the medium through which they pass.
 
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Tangent
In geometry, the tangent line to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point. Leibniz defined it as the line through a pair of infinitely close points on the curve.Wikipedia

moon-2-composite.png

A daughter who cries Who am I?
A mother who can't tell her…
A hurricane called Katrina…
A family secret exposed…
An island at the bottom of the world. jenniogden.com

Perhaps the trick with our minds, as with many other things in life, is balance: There is a time for focus and a time for mind-wandering. We can control, to some extent, when our minds wander, and there are many situations where this is advantageous. The most obvious of these is being creative; without time to daydream, many wonderful novels would never be written, nor artworks completed. We can daydream about a holiday we had last summer, and, just as easily, about a holiday we want to have next summer. Dreaming during sleep, and some types of hallucinations, are also forms of mind-wandering—generally not under our control and often hard to recall.


Of course, a lot of mind-wandering is negative and intrusive, and difficult to tame. Ruminating about things that have made us miserable and things we are worried about is something we could do without. The more serious the worry, the more likely it is to wander intrusively into our thoughts when we are desperately trying to focus on some other, more useful or pleasant activity. Some therapists suggest that worriers should put aside 15 minutes at the same time every day—perhaps early evening—specifically for worrying. They can spend this entire time actively worrying, and when it's over, they are free to stop, and move on to another activity. In a sense, this is forcing negative mind-wandering out of the default-mode network and onto the playing field for an intense workout. It doesn’t work for everyone, or for every problem that worries us, but it could be worth a try.
psychologytoday.com
 
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Another pairing was the CIA determination in October 1962 that the Soviet Union was preparing to place ballistic missiles in Cuba. John McCone, the director of the CIA, understood the implications of the photographs taken by the U-2 spy aircraft. However, Sherman Kent, a CIA specialist in Russian behavior, judged it highly unlikely that Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, would do anything so risky. Kent had all the same information as McCone but he drew the opposite conclusion.
psychologytoday.com, Cognitive Roadblocks

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Cognitive Roadblocks, Gary Klein Ph.D., Seeing What Others Don't, Psychologytoday.com

WHAT CAUSES MENTAL BLOCKS?
No matter what you call them, all mind blocks are ultimately caused by the same thing: limiting beliefs. Here are a few common types of mental blocks that are actually limiting beliefs in disguise:

NEED FOR CERTAINTY
Certainty is one of our Six Human Needs. A little bit of it is essential to living a comfortable and fulfilling life. But many people let certainty rule their lives, instead of complementing it. Sometimes all it takes to get over a mental block is to get out of your comfort zone and allow yourself to feel that excitement and anxiety that comes from doing something new – and mastering it.

PERFECTIONISM
If you believe that everything you do must be perfect, it’s easy to fall into the trap of mental blocks. You get stuck in a pattern of perfection where nothing is ever good enough – and therefore nothing is ever done. You can even reach the point where you don’t bother to start a task because you think, “What’s the point? It won’t be perfect.” But as Tony Robbins says, “Perfection is the lowest standard in the world.” It is always better to keep moving, let yourself fail and learn a lesson.

SELF-DOUBT
A deep belief in yourself is the single best predictor of success – not money or luck. That’s because we become what we believe we are. If you believe you’re not skilled enough, not smart enough, not deserving of success or any number of other negative beliefs, that becomes your reality. Instead you must adopt a growth mindset – a belief that you can do anything you set your mind to.
Tony Robbins.com, Overcoming Mental Blocks
 
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Question: Can education become a roadblock for the mind? Please feel free to add your answers to this question only. Personal feelings, please.
 
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Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell
 
Tell me, what is missing?

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What is missing?
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copied, lollyjane.com
 
Do we seek to be recognized? Are we the same? Do we stay together?
 
Are we different?

How so?
 
We could be looking at the heavens. Do they fight over what they want? Does everyone Want?

I shall not want. I am ready. Watching. Waiting. What do I wait for?

Do I wait, or shall I want?

" you can't always get what you want"
 
Do we fight for what we want, or do we protect what we have?

Are we protectors?